• Top down design, rather than bottom up evolutionary design (WP1) will allow radically different solutions to be identified that have the potential to provide a step change in performance.
  • Identification of innovations from other domains (WP2) will bring new ideas and concepts to the area of S&C design.
  • Focus on new materials (WP4) will investigate whether new material and manufacturing techniques are able to improve performance.
  • Reduction in impact forces produced by discontinuities in existing design (WP4) will reduce the degradation rate of S&C.
  • Optimisation of wheel/rail interface (WP4) will minimise wear.
  • Validation of design concepts (WP6) will ensure that the solutions are practicable.
  • Evaluation of design integrated design (WP7) will quantify the impact (economic, performance, etc.).